Negative and Inconclusive Research on the TM Program

and other suggested reading

  • Persinger, M.A. "Transcendental Meditation and general meditation are associated with enhanced complex partial epileptic-like signs: evidence for 'cognitive' kindling?" Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993, 76, 80-82.
    (Summary and Excerpts)
  • Castillo, R. J. "Depersonalization and Meditation." Psychiatry, 1990, 53, 158-168.
    The depersonalization and derealization experiences of novice subjects while meditating by gazing at a blue vase are strikingly similar to the experiences reported by TM meditators. (Excerpts)
  • Carsello, C. J. and Creaser, J. W. "Does Transcendental Meditation Affect Grades?" Journal of Applied Psychology, 1978, 63, 644-645.
    No effect upon grades was demonstrated for TM training. (Full Text)
  • Pollack, A. A., Weber, M. A., Case, D. B., Laragh, J. H. "Limitations of Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of essential hypertension." The Lancet, January 8, 1977, 71-73.
    Patients showed no significant change in blood-pressure after a 6 month study. (Summary)
  • Morler, Edward E. "A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Transcendental Meditation on Selected Dimensions of Organization Dynamics." Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1973.
    TM may not have immediate measurable effects, and many changes may be due to placebo effect. (Abstract)
  • Heide, F.J. and Borkovec, T.D. "Relaxation-Induced Anxiety: Mechanism and Theoretical Implications." Behavioral Research Therapy, 1984, 22, 1-12.
  • A.P. French, A.C. Schmid, and E. Ingalls, "Transcendental Meditation, Altered Reality Testing, and Behavioral Change: A Case Report," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1975, 161, 55-58.
  • R.B. Kennedy, "Self-Induced Depersonalization Syndrome," American Journal of Psychiatry, 1976, 133, 1326-1328.
  • A.A. Lazarus, "Psychiatric Problems Precipitated by Transcendental Meditation," Psychological Reports, 1976, 39, 601-602.
  • L.S. Otis, "Adverse Effects of Transcendental Meditation," in D. Shapiro and R. Walsh (eds.), Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives (New York: Alden, 1984).
  • M.A. Persinger, "Enhanced Incidence of 'The Sensed Presence' in People Who Have Learned to Meditate: Support for the Right Hemispheric Intrusion Hypothesis," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1992, 75, 1308-1310.
  • J. Younger, W. Adriance, and R.J. Berger, "Sleep during Transcendental Meditation," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976,40,953-954.
  • D.L. Schacter, "EEG Theta Waves and Psychological Phenomena: A Review and Analysis."Biological Psychology, 5, 1977, 47-82.
  • Andrew Skolnick, "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's Marketing Scheme Promises the World Eternal 'Perfect Health'!", JAMA 1991;266:1741-1750,October 2, 1991.
  • James Hassett, "Caution: Meditation Can Hurt," Psychology Today, November 1978, 125-126.
  • TM and Cult Mania by Michael Persinger with Normand J. Carrey and Lynn A. Suess. ISBN 0-8158-0392-3

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